Bitcoin Gold was created in August 2017 from a hard fork of the original Bitcoin blockchain with the stated purpose of making Bitcoin decentralized again. While it seemed counterintuitive to some, the inspiration for creating Bitcoin Gold arose not from a lack of decentralization with the currency itself, but from the ever-growing centralization of mining, the practice that verifies and secures Bitcoin transactions.
Bitcoin Gold is a reversion to the original vision of Bitcoin, one where anyone could participate in mining and support the network with their personal computers. This vision died with the invention of custom-built application- specific integrated circuits (ASICS). Since the introduction of ASICS, Bitcoin mining has become increasingly centralized, thus motivating the creators of Bitcoin Gold to introduce the Equihash algorithm, which does not disproportionately favour centralized mining pools.